Welding Equipment in Industry

MMAW / Arc Welding Equipment – Features:

February 2022 - Welding Alloys Manufacturers In India

Welding Equipment in Industry

Table of Contents

  • MMAW / Arc Welding Equipment – Features
  • MMAW / Arc Welding Equipment – Advantages
  • Types of Arc Welding Equipment / Power Sources
    • Motor Generator
    • Welding Rectifier
    • Welding Inverter

In fabrication, welding helps to join materials using heat to melt the parts together. Useful with metals and thermoplastics, this process typically uses a filler material to the weld pool of molten material, helping to make the joint stronger than the base material. Pressure is used in the process along with heat in welding, while a shield protects the metals from being oxidized in the process.

The most heat sources for joining material using a fusion welding process are listed below:

Fusion welding sources

We have five types of Arc welding Equipment/power sources. These are AC transformer; DC rectifier; AC/DC transformer rectifier, DC generator, and inverter.

MMAW / Arc Welding Equipment – Features

  • Portable & Versatile equipment
  • Requires practiced skills
  • Applicable to a wide range of materials, joints, positions
  • About 1kg per hour of weld deposited
  • Properties can be excellent
  • Benchmark process

MMAW / Arc Welding Equipment – Advantages

  • This is the simplest of all Arc welding processes.
  • Equipment is portable
  • Economical Cost of Equipment
  • Variety of applications & wide availability of electrodes
  • The range of metals & their alloys can be welded
  • Welding in all Positions
  • Welding can be Indoors or Outdoors 
  • Welding cable can be extended to long distances when compared to other processes

Types of Arc Welding Equipment / Power Sources:

Arc welding power sources

A welding transformer is basically a step-down transformer that brings down the source voltage to weldable voltage. This is simple Arc welding Equipment.

Motor Generator 

Motor Generator is also an Arc welding Equipment, which utilizes input power to rotate the generator through an induction motor. This kinetic energy is converted to electrical energy by carbon brushes fitted in the commuter, generating DC current is generated supplying constant power to the process.

In a Diesel Generator, diesel is used as fuel to run the motor to generate electricity; this is widely used in on-site jobs for Arc welding applications 

Welding Rectifier

Welding rectifiers are essentially transformers with an electrical device as a rectifier which changes AC to DC. Rectifier basically consists of Silicon diodes, which ensure the flow of current in one direction giving DC output. This is most commonly used with Arc welding equipment.

Welding Inverter

This latest technology power source is the most popular Arc Welding equipment today. A welding inverter is a power block, controlled by software, which offers the required static and dynamic characteristics needed for a specific welding process. It takes AC input and converts it into DC after step-down & then converts it further into high-frequency AC & then again converts it to DC – finally offering a DC output. When using an inverter power source, a user gains all the advantages of thyristor control. Additionally, they get superior efficiency, power savings, better performance, and quality of welding.

We at Ador Fontech offer the best “Make in India” solutions with Fontech Tornado brand Welding Power sources. We offer both robust Thyristor-controlled machines as well as Power saving Inverter machines for all welding processes like Manual Metal Arc welding, TIG, MIG/MAG, and SAW. Once again, we reiterate our total commitment to total solutions in welding with this range of equipment, catering to the complete requirements of customers. 

Reclaim. Do not Replace.


Also read:- Hypertherm Life Expectancy of Consumables

Key Differences Between SMAW and SAW Welding

Table of Contents

  • An Introduction to Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) process
    • Heat source
    • Energy Consumption
  • An Introduction to Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) process
  • Advantages with the SMAW Process
  • Limitations of the SMAW process
  • Advantages with the SAW Process
  • Limitations of the SAW process

The basic difference between the two processes, SMAW and SAW welding, is this. In the SMAW process, the flux-coated electrode helps to shield the welding process from any interaction with the atmosphere. In the SAW process, an external flux delivered at the arcing area acts as a shield. So, the welding happens underneath the powder flux fed by a delivery system. This is the primary difference between SAW & SMAW processes. Let us get introduced to both processes.


An Introduction to Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) process

In SMAW or MMAW (Manual Metal Arc Welding), the arc is established between Parent Metal shielded (flux-coated) welding electrodes using electrical energy to deposit weld metal. 

Heat source: Arc between metal and a flux-coated electrode (1.6- 8 mm diameter)   

Energy Consumption: 30 – 400 Amps –depending on the size of the electrode in general, even though there are welding machines that use up to 600 Amps. AC or DC SMAW Operation Power consumption 1-12 KW

An Introduction to Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) process

 In the SAW Process, as the name signifies, the welding happens submerged beneath the flux. SAW process also employs a welding consumable, usually a wire. An arc is established between the welding wire and base metal and welding happens underneath the metal powder of flux, which shields the arc from the atmosphere.


Heat source: Arc between a wire and base metal 

Current Range: 200 Amps -1200 Amps

DC operation                       

Power Consumption-35-56 KVA

  • Power source
  • Welding head and control box
  • Welding head travel
  • Flux recovery system (optional)

Let us take a look at the process advantages & limitations of both SMAW and SAW processes.

Advantages with the SMAW Process:

  • This is the simplest of all Arc welding processes.
  • Equipment is portable
  • Cost of equipment is economical
  • Variety of applications & wide range of electrodes available
  • A range of metals & their alloys can be welded
  • Welding can be done in all positions
  • Welding can happen indoors & outdoors 
  • Welding cable can be extended to long distances in comparison to the SAW process

Limitations of the SMAW process:

  • Low productivity as in a 10-minute span, welding happens only for 6 minutes 
  • The process also involves the frequent change of welding electrode
  • Moisture from flux coatings can create weld-related problems
  • Safety problems like arc strike, stray current & electric shock risks
  • Absolutely manual process – hence called Manual Metal Arc Welding 

Advantages with the SAW Process:

  • High productivity up to 2 to 10 kg per hour.
  • Speed almost up to 2m/min
  • Can be easily automated for even higher productivity.

Limitations of the SAW process:

  • Bulky, expensive, and heavy equipment
  • Flat and horizontal positions only
  • Thicker sections (6mm and above)
  • Mostly ferrous materials (also Ni alloys)

Given these essential differences between MMAW/SMAW and SAW processes and their respective advantages and limitations, a considered choice can be made between these processes.


We, at Ador Fontech, offer the best “Make in India” solutions with Fontech Tornado brand welding machines for both SMAW and SAW processes. Once again, we reiterate our commitment to total solutions in welding to the complete satisfaction of customers, with this range of equipment.  


Also read:- Resolve Wear Factors

Non-Fusion Welding with Brazing & Soldering

Table of Contents

  • Advantages & Disadvantages with Non-fusion welding
    • Advantages
    • Disadvantages
  • Four Requirements of Brazing and Soldering Process
    • Clean Metal
    • Filler Rod
    • Flux
    • Heat Source
  • Importance of Controlling Heat in Soldering & brazing
  • Soldering
  • Brazing

Brazing and soldering

Soldering and Brazing form a part of non-fusion welding processes, where only the filler rod is melted in the process.

The three common processes used in non-fusion welding are :

  • Soldering
  • Brazing 
  • Braze welding

Advantages & Disadvantages with Non-fusion welding

Let’s take a look at the advantages and disadvantages of this type of welding.


  • Lower temperature
  • Easy assembly
  • Welds dissimilar metals
  • Allows disassembly/realignment
  • Joins metals of different thicknesses
  • Joins different types of metal


  • Results in lower tensile strength
  • Not an efficient method for thick metal 
  • Not an efficient method for large parts 

Depending on the specific application, this welding is also an accepted method.

Four Requirements of Brazing and Soldering Process

  • Clean metal
  • Appropriate filler rod
  • Correct flux
  • Heat

Clean Metal:

This process needs the metal being welded to be clean, for the following reasons.

  • For Soldering and brazing processes bond metal by adhesion, which is the molecular attraction exerted between bodies in contact.
  • Molecular bonding requires a clean surface – not a polished surface.

Filler Rod 

Suitable filler rods are an essential part of the process. Such filler rods are available for many soldering and brazing processes.  

  • Brazing: A brazing rod is available as a bare rod or a flux-coated rod.
  • Soldering: 
    • Solder can be a solid or flux core/paste
    • Can be made of tin, silver, or zinc alloy.


Flux must be used with all soldering and brazing processes.

  • Three purposes of flux.
    • Chemically clean the metal
    • Shield from oxidation and atmospheric contamination
    • Promote wetting
  • Flux must be appropriate for the metal and filler material.
  • Flux is available in three (3) forms.
    • Paste
    • Powder
    • Liquid

Heat Source:

  • Heat is measured in British Thermal Units and must be sufficient in measure to raise the base metal temperature above the melting point of the filler rod to make soldering or brazing joint
  • Several heat sources can be used.
    • Oxyacetylene
    • Air acetylene
    • Air propane (LPG)
    • Oxy propane
    • Electric soldering iron
    • Electric soldering gun

Importance of Controlling Heat in Soldering & brazing:

  • Metals are excellent conductors of heat
    • Heat applied to the joint moves away from the joint.
    • The greater the mass of metal that must be heated–the greater the heat requirement.
  • Excessive heat will cause the flux to burn.
    • Contaminates the joint.
    • Joint must be re-cleaned
  • Manipulation of the heat source may be necessary to heat both pieces evenly.

Let’s understand Brazing and Soldering:


Soldering is a process that uses a metal alloy that melts below 450oC and may or may not use capillary action. Capillary action (wicking) occurs when a substance is able to draw another substance into it, like a wick draws oil in.

Solders are divided into two categories:

    • Soft
    • Hard
  • Soft soldering
    • Lead or lead replacement solder
    • Lower tensile strength
    • Copper pipe and sheet metal
    • Stained glass
  • Hard soldering
    • Silver-based solders
    • Jewelry


The brazing process uses a metal alloy that melts above 450oC but has a lower melting point in comparison to the base metal. The melted filler metal gets drawn into the joint or kept in the joint through capillary action, and the brazing process relies on this. The capillary effect requires very minute gaps between metal surfaces, clean surfaces, and flux, and is a function of the ability of a liquid to wet a particular material. This is why the basic difference between soldering and brazing is the temperature of the process.

ADFL is one of the few companies in India manufacturing Brazing Alloys and Soldering alloys with the required flux. This product range of Ador Fontech limited signifies our concept of Life Enhancement of Industrial components to the complete satisfaction of customers.  

Reclaim. Do not Replace.


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